Tuesday, April 26, 2011

SOCIAL STUDIES.(Manufacturing Industries Chapter 6)

                                               Manufacturing Industries Chapter 6
                                                        points to remember..
1. Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more
valuable products is called manufacturing.
2. Public sector industries were set up to eradicate unemployment, poverty and bring
down regional disparities from our country.
3. Manufacturing sector contributes 17 % of GDP.
4 In order to compete in the international market our industry needs to be more
efficient, competitive and produce good quality goods.
5. The most dominant factor of industrial location is the least cost.
6· Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by
the urban centres known as agglomeration economies.
7· The main objective of the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC)
is to achieve the desired 12% growth rate and improve industrial productivity.
8· The first successful cotton textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.
9· India exports yarn to Japan. India exports cotton goods to U.S.A., U.K. and Russia.
10· India is the second largest exporter of jute products after Bangladesh.
11· The first jute mill was set up near Kolkata in 1859.
12· The National Jute Policy was formulated in 2005 to increase productivity, quality,
good prices and the yield of jute.
13· The growing global concern for environment friendly, biodegradable materials has
once again opened the opportunity for jute products.
14· India is the second largest producer of sugar in the world.
15· The sugar industry is seasonal in nature so, it is ideally suited to the cooperative
sector.
16· The iron and steel Industry is called the basic industry because all the other
industries depend on it for their machinery.
17· Iron and steel is called a heavy industry because all the raw materials as well as
finished goods are heavy and bulky. It involves heavy transportation costs.
18· The raw material needed to produce the steel are Iron ore, coking coal and lime
stone in the ratio of approximately 4: 2: 1. And some quantities of Manganese.
19· India ranks ninth among the world crude steel producers.
20· All public sector undertakings market their steel through, Steel Authority of India
Ltd. (SAIL).
21· In 2004 India was the largest exporter of steel in the world.
22· To produce one ton of Aluminium 4 to 6 tons of bauxite is needed.
23· Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India.
24· Cryolite is a molten metal which is used as an electrolyte to produce Aluminium.
25· 18,600 Kwh of electricity is needed to produce 1 ton of Aluminium.
26· The chemical industry is its own largest consumer.
27· Fertiliser Corporation of India (FCI) in Hazira Gujarat is the only fertilizer plant in
cooperative sector.
28· Fertilizer industry expanded after the introduction of Green Revolution.
29· The cement industry is concentrated in Gujarat because it has suitable access to the
market in the Gulf countries for the export of cement.
30· The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.
31· Bangalore city is known as the electronic capital of India.
32· The software technology parks provide single window service and high data
communication facility to software experts.
33· Industries are responsible for four types of pollution: Air, Water, Land and Noise.
34· Every litre of waste water discharged by our industry pollutes eight times the
quantity of freshwater.
                                                  ( question and answer)
Q.1 “The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of
manufacturing industries”. Justify this statement with four examples.
ans i. Manufacturing industries help in modernizing agriculture;
ii. They also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by
providing them jobs.
iii. Industrial development reduces unemployment and poverty:
iv. It also brings down regional disparities.
v. Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings foreign
exchange.
vi. Prosperity of our country depends on transforming raw materials into furnished
goods of higher value and diversifying our industries.
vii. Industrial sector contributes 27 % of GDP and manufacturing contributes 17 % of
GDP.
Q.2 “Agriculture and industry are not exclusive of each other. They move hand in hand.”
Justify this statement with 4 examples.
Ans. The agro-industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture -
i. Agro-based industries have given a boost to agriculture by raising its productivity.
ii. Agro-based industries depend on the agriculture for their raw materials such as
cotton, sugarcane, jute etc.
iii. Agriculture depends on industries for products such as irrigation pumps, fertilizers,
insecticides, pesticides, machines and tools, etc.
iv. Industrial development helps agriculture in increasing their production and make
production processes very efficient.
Q.3 Which factor plays the most dominant role in the ideal location of an industry?
Explain any three reasons in support of this factor.
Ans. The most dominant factor of industrial location is the least cost.
i. Cost of obtaining raw materials at site: Manufacturing activity tends to locate
at the most appropriate place where all the raw materials of production are either
available or can be arranged at lower cost.
ii. Cost of production at site: These are influenced by availability of labour, capital,
power, etc. Thus industrial location is influenced by the costs of availability of these
factors of production.
iii. Cost of distribution of production: The distance of industry from market
influence the transportation costs. Transportation costs influence the cost of
distribution of production.
Q.4 Explain the any 4 factors which influences the location of an industry.
Ans. Industries maximize profits by reducing costs therefore industries are located where
the costs are minimum. The factors influencing are:
i. Access to Market:
Areas/regions having high purchasing power provide large market therefore
such as luxury items producing industries are located in these regions.
ii. Access to Raw Material:
Raw material used by industries should be cheap and easy to transport.
a. E.g. Industries based on cheap, bulky and weight-losing material (ores) are
located close to the sources of raw material such as steel, sugar, and cement
industries.
b. E.g. Industries using perishable raw material are located closer to the source of
the raw material such as Agro-processing and dairy industries.
iii. Access to Labour Supply: Some types of manufacturing require skilled labour
therefore IT industries are located near urban-educational centres where skilled
labours are easily available.
iv. Access to Sources of Energy: Industries which use more power are located close
to the source of the energy supply such as the aluminium industry.
v. Access to Transportation and Communication Facilities:
Speedy and efficient transport facilities reduce the cost of transport. Therefore
industries are attracted in regions having good transport facilities.
vi. Government Policy: Governments adopt ‘regional policies’ to promote ‘balanced’
economic development and hence set up industries in backward and tribal areas.
vii. Access to Agglomeration Economies: Many industries takes benefit from
nearness to a leader-industry and other industries.
Q.5 Why do industries tend to locate themselves near cities or urban centres?
Ans. Some industries tend to locate near urban centres because of:
i. Some cities provide markets to the industrial products,
ii. Cities also provide services such as banking, insurance, consultants and financial
advice, transport, labour, etc. to the industry.
iii. Cities or urban centres provide benefits of agglomeration economies.
iv. Coastal Urban places help in overseas trade.
Classification of industries:
On the basis of source of raw materials used:
i. Agro based: cotton, woollen, jute, silk textile, rubber and sugar, tea, coffee,
edible oil.
ii. Mineral based: iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine tools,
petrochemicals.
On the basis of their main role:
i. Basic or key industries which supply their products as raw materials to
manufacture other goods e.g. iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminum
smelting.
ii. Consumer industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers – sugar,
toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc.
On the basis of capital investment:
i. Small scale industry: having rupees one crore as the maximum investment on
the assets of a unit.
ii. Large scale industry: If investment is more than one crore on any industry.
On the basis of ownership:
i. Public sector: owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL etc.
ii. Private sector industries owned and operated by individuals or a group of
individuals –TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.
iii. Joint sector industries which are jointly run by the state and individuals or a
group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by public and private
sector.
iv. Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or
suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. They pool in the resources and
share the profits or losses proportionately such as the sugar industry in
Maharashtra, the coir industry in Kerala.
Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods:
i. Heavy industries such as iron and steel
ii. Light industries that use light raw materials and produce light goods such as
electrical industries.
Q.6 Why the textile industry occupies unique position in the Indian economy?
Ans. The significance of textile industry in India can be judged by
i. It contributes 14 percent to industrial production.
ii. It provides and generates employment for 35 million persons directly.
iii. It earns 25 per cent of foreign exchange.
iv. It contributes 4 per cent towards GDP.
v. It is the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in the value
chain i.e., from raw material to the highest value added products.
Cotton Textiles:
Q.7 Why in early years the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the states of
Gujarat and Maharashtra?
Ans. In the early years, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the Gujarat and
Maharashtra because of:
a. Maharashtra and Gujarat are traditional cotton growing belt of India. Raw cotton
is available from nearby areas thus reducing the cost of obtaining raw material
at site.
b. Urban cetres of these states offer large market to cotton products,
c. Transport including accessible port facilities help in reducing costs,
d. Abundant labour from nearby densely populated region,
e. Moist climate due to nearness to Arabian sea help in industrial production.
Q.8 State the importance of cotton textile industry in India.
Ans.
i. Cotton textile industry has close links with agriculture.
ii. It provides a living to farmers, cotton boll pluckers.
iii. It provides income to workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing,
designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing.
iv. This industry creates demands and supports many other industries, such as,
chemicals and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works.
v. India exports yarn to Japan and other cotton goods to U.S.A., U.K., and Russia.
Q.9 Differentiate between spinning and weaving sectors of cotton textiles industries in
India.
Ans. Spinning and weaving are the two important component of cotton textile industry:
i. While spinning continues to be centralized in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu,
weaving is highly decentralized in other states.
ii. India has world class production and quality in spinning, but weaving supplies low
quality of fabric because they are fragmented small units.
iii. Our spinning mills are competitive at the global level but the weaving, knitting
units produce textile for local market.
iv. Yarn produced in spinning sector is exported to Japan while weaving sector can not
use this high quality yarn produced therefore they import fabric.
v. The share international trade of yarn produced in spinning sector (25%) is much
larger than the trade of cotton garments (4%).
Q.10 Mention the major drawbacks and problems of cotton textile industry in India.
Ans. Cotton textile industry in India suffers from some problems:
i. India has world class production and quality in spinning, but weaving supplies low
quality of fabric because they are fragmented small units. This mismatch is major
drawback.
ii. Many of our spinners export cotton yarn while apparel/garment manufactures have
to import fabric.
iii. Although we the production of staple cotton has increased but we still need to
import good quality staple cotton.
iv. Cotton textile industries face the problem of erratic Power supply which decreases
the labour productivity.
v. Machinery needs to be upgraded in the weaving and processing sectors in
particular.
vi. Output of labour is low due to poor machines and power supply.
vii. There is a Stiff competition with the synthetic fibre industry.
Jute Textiles
Q.11 Why most of our jute mills are located along the banks of the Hugli River in West
Bengal?
Ans. Factors responsible for their location in the Hugli basin are:
i. Proximity of the jute producing areas,
ii. Inexpensive water transport,
iii. Support of a good network of railways, roadways and waterways to facilitate
movement of raw material to the mills,
iv. Abundant water for processing raw jute,
v. Cheap labour from West Bengal and adjoining states of Bihar, Orissa and Uttar
Pradesh.
vi. Kolkata as a large urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for
export of jute goods.
Q.12 State the importance of jute textile industry in India.
Ans. The Jute industry
i. The jute industry supports 2.61 lakh workers directly.
ii. It also supports another 40 lakhs small and marginal farmers who are engaged in
cultivation of jute and mesta.
iii. India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and stands at second place
as an exporter after Bangladesh.
Q.13 What are the challenges faced by the jute industry in India?
Ans. Challenges faced by the industry are:
i. Stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes.
ii. Stiff competition from other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt
and Thailand.
iii. The internal demand needs to be increased; however it has increased recently due
to the Government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging.
iv. There is urgent need to increase the jute productivity and the quality.
v. The jute farmer needs to get good prices for their jute crops.
vi. The yield per hectare needs to be improved.
vii. To stimulate demand the jute products needs to be diversified.
Q.14 What are the objectives of the National Jute Policy formulated in 2005?
Ans. The National jute policy was formulated in 2005 for:
i. Increasing jute productivity,
ii. Improving its quality,
iii. Ensuring good prices for crops to the jute farmers
iv. Enhancing the yield per hectare of jute crops.
Q.15 Name any four countries to which we export Jute products.
Ans. The main markets are U.S.A., Canada, Russia, United Arab Republic, U.K. and
Australia.
Sugar Industry
Q.16 Explain why 60% of sugar mills are located in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
Ans. Sugar industry is located in the sugarcane growing regions because:
i. The raw material (sugarcane) used in this industry is bulky and difficult to
transport at low costs.
ii. The sucrose content in the sugarcane reduces during its transportation.
iii. Cooler climates allows the longer crushing season.
iv. Sugar industry is ideally suited for cooperative sector because it’s a seasonal
industry.
v. Sugarcane grows well during hot and humid climates only.
Q.17 Why in recent years the sugar mills have shifted to southern and western states?
Ans. The sugar mills in recent years have shifted and concentrated in the southern and
western states, especially in Maharashtra, This is because -
i. The cane produced here has higher sucrose content.
ii. The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season.
iii. The cooperatives are more successful in these states.
Q.18 What are the major challenges faced by the sugar industry in India?
Ans. The major challenges include:
i. The seasonal nature of the industry,
ii. Old and inefficient methods of production,
iii. Transport delay in reaching cane to factories
iv. The need to maximize the use of baggase.
Iron and Steel Industry
Q.19 Explain why most the iron and steel industry are concentrated in Chotanagpur
plateau region.
Ans. Chotanagpur region has relative advantages such as:
i. This region is rich in the raw material needed to produce the steel such as iron ore,
coal, limestone, etc.
ii. These raw material are heavy and bulky therefore difficult and costly to transport to
the plant.
iii. This region has well connected railway lines which offer easy transportation of the
finished products for their distribution to the markets and consumers.
iv. This region gets its power supply from Damodar valley.
v. Availability of cheap labour from surrounding regions.
Q.20 Explain why India is not able to produce steel as per its full potential.
Ans. Though, India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world yet, we
are not able to perform to our full potential largely due to:
(a) High costs and limited availability of coking coal
(b) Lower productivity of labour
(c) Irregular supply of energy and
(d) Poor infrastructure.
Q.21 Give one point of difference between mini and integrated steel plants.
Ans. Mini steel plants are smaller, have electric furnaces, use steel scrap and sponge
iron. They produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications.
An integrated steel plant is large, handles everything in one complex – from putting
together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping.
Aluminium Smelting
Q.22 Which characteristics of aluminium make it most important metal?
Ans. Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India.
i. It is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, mallable and becomes
strong when it is mixed with other metals.
ii. It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires.
iii. It has gained popularity as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number
of industries.
Q.23 Mention two most important factors which influence the location of Aluminium
industry.
Ans. Bauxite, the raw material used in the industry is a very bulky.
i. Regular supply of electricity for electrolysis.
ii. Assured sources of raw material at minimum cost are the two prime factors for
location of the industry.
Chemical Industries
Q.24 Mention two types of chemical industries in India. Give four uses/examples of each.
Ans. Chemical industries consist of inorganic and organic chemicals.
i. Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid (used to manufacture fertilisers,
synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints, dyes stuffs), nitric acid, alkalies, soda
ash (used to make glass, soaps and detergents, paper) and caustic soda.
ii. Organic chemicals include petrochemicals, which are used for manufacturing of
synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals.
Q.25 Why the organic chemical industries are located near oil refineries where as
inorganic chemical industries are spread all over India?
Ans. The organic chemical industries get their raw materials from byproducts of mineral
oil which is processed and refined at oil refineries therefore these industries are
located near oil refineries. Whereas the raw material for inorganic chemicals comes
from other sources therefore they are not concentrated around one place.
Fertiliser Industry
Q.26 Name important fertilizers produced in the fertilizer industry.
Ans. The fertiliser industry produce
i. Nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea),
ii. Phosphatic fertilizers
iii. Ammonium phosphate (DAP)
iv. Complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and

Manufacturing Industries Chapter 6
Q.27 Mention major producer of fertilizer in the country.
Ans. Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala produces half the fertiliser
production.
Cement Industry
Q.28 Which factors has prompted an expansion in the cement industry in India?
Ans. Cement is considered essential for:
i. Decontrol of price and distribution since 1989
ii. Other government policy reforms led to the increase in capacity, process,
technology and production.
iii. Increase in demand due to large scale construction activity such as building
houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and for other commercial
establishments.
iv. Production of good quality cement and its export to East Asia, Gulf countries and
South Asian countries.
Q.29 Which factors influence the location of cement industry in India?
Ans.
i. Bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum.
ii. Coal and electric power are needed as source of energy.
iii. It also needs good rail transportation.
iv. Port facilities for the export of cement.
Automobile Industry
Q.30 Which factors lead to the growth in the Automobiles industry of our country?
Ans. Automobile industry expanded in last 15 years due to:
i. New economic policy of Liberalization.
ii. Coming in of new and contemporary models.
iii. Foreign Direct Investment brought in new technology.
iv. Industry is now globalised.
Information Technology and Electronics Industry
Q.31 Name the products of electronic industry.
Ans. The electronics industry produces products such as transistors, telephones, cellular
telecom, pagers, telephone exchange, radars, computers and many other types of
equipment required by the telecommunication industry.
Q.32 What is the significance of IT industry in our country?
Ans. The significance of IT industry can be judged by:
i. It is one of the major employments generating industry. Over one million persons
are employed in this industry.
ii. 30 per cent of the people employed in this sector are women.
iii. It is the major foreign exchange earner industry of our country.
iv. Business Processes Outsourcing (BPO) services have been growing rapidly.
Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation
Q.33 What is air pollution? Explain how air pollution is caused by the industries. What are
the effects of air pollution?
Ans. Air pollution: the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases (SO2 and CO)
and airborne particulate materials in the air is called air pollution.

Air pollution is caused by -
i. Airborne particulate materials which contain both solid and liquid particles
like dust, sprays mist and smoke causes air pollution.
ii. Smoke emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and
smelting plants, and burning of fossil fuels causes air pollution.
iii. Toxic gas leaks from industries causes air pollution. Example the Bhopal Gas
tragedy.
Air pollution adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings and the
atmosphere as a whole.
i. Air pollution causes various diseases related to respiratory, nervous and
circulatory systems.
ii. Smoky fog over cities called as urban smog is caused by atmospheric
pollution.
iii. Air pollution can also cause acid rains.
Q.34 How is water pollution caused? Which industries causes the water and land
pollution? What are the effects of water and land pollution?
Ans. Water pollution: Degradation of the quality of water due to high concentrations of
suspended particles, organic and inorganic substances is called water pollution.
Water pollution is caused by -
a. Industrial activities: is the most significant source of water pollution.
i. Industrial wastes, polluted waste water, poisonous gases,
chemical residuals, heavy metals, dust, smoke, etc. causes water pollution.
ii. Most of the industrial wastes are disposed off in running water or
lakes. Consequently, poisonous elements reach the reservoirs,
rivers and other water bodies, which destroy the bio-system of these waters.
iii. Major water polluting industries are leather, pulp and paper,textiles and chemicals.
b. Agricultural activities:
i. Various types of chemicals used in modern agriculture such as
inorganic fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides causes water pollution.
ii. These chemicals are washed down to rivers, lakes, tanks and
under ground water and causes water pollution.
iii. Fertiliser induces an increase in the nitrate content of surface waters.
c. Cultural activities:
i. Such as pilgrimage, religious fairs, tourism, etc. also cause water
pollution. In India, almost all surface water sources are
contaminated and unfit for human consumption.
d. Urban activities:
i. Such as Sewage disposal, urban run-off causes water pollution.
Main effects of water pollution are:
i. Water pollution is a source of various water borne diseases.
ii. The diseases are diarrhea, intestinal worms, hepatitis, etc.
iii. World Health Organisation shows that about 25% of the
communicable diseases in India are water-borne.
Q.35 What is thermal pollution? What are its effects?
Ans. Thermal pollution: It occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is
drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
The effects are:effects
i. Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities
cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages.
ii. Dumping of wastes specially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents,
packaging, salts and garbage renders the soil useless.
iii. Rain water percolates to the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and the ground water also gets contaminated.
Q.36 What is noise pollution? Which industrial units cause noise pollution? What are the effects of noise pollution?
Ans. Noise pollution: The state of high level of noise levels which is unbearable and
uncomfortable to human beings is called noise pollution.Main source of noise pollution are:
i. It is caused by Industrial and construction activities, Machinery and factory
equipments, Generators, Saws, Pneumatic and Electric drills.
ii. Noise from sirens, loudspeakers used in various festivals, programmes
associated with community activities.
iii. The biggest noise pollution is produced by traffic.
Effects of Noise pollution:
i. It results in irritation and anger,
ii. It can also cause hearing impairment,
iii. Increased heart rate and blood pressure among other physiological effects.
iv. Unwanted sound is an irritant and a source of stress.Control of Environmental Degradation
Q.37 How can the industrial pollution of fresh water be reduced?
Ans. Industrial pollution and degradation can be controlled by:
i. Minimizing use water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.
ii. Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements.
iii. Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
iv. Regulating the overdrawing of ground water reserves by industry.
v. Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with
electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.
vi. Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
vii. Generators should be fitted with silencers.
viii. Redesigning machineries to increase their energy efficiency and reduce noise.
ix. Noise absorbing material may be used apart from personal use of earplugs and earphones.
Q.38 Explain the three phase of treatment of industrial effluents.
Ans. Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases.
i. Primary treatment by mechanical means. This involves screening, grinding,flocculation and sedimentation.
ii. Secondary treatment by biological process
iii. Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes. This involves recycling of waste water.                                                                *******************************

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